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Friday, 20 April 2018

Program area "Philosophy and subjectivity" approved; launches May 1st

Yesterday we were notified that University of Stavanger, or more specifically the Dean of Faculty of Social Sciencesm has approved the establishment of the program area for research "Filosofi og subjektivitet" [Philosophy and subjectivity], with me among the core members. The program area is officially established May 1st and for now runs until December 31st.

JCSW special issue meeting

Today I have attended a meeting on a special issue of Journal of Comparative Social Work which will soon be announced, with fellow guest-editors, the Editor-in-Chief, and administrative staff.

Thursday, 19 April 2018

Meeting on research methods teaching

Today I have, along with several colleagues, attended a department meeting on research methods teaching in the bachelor degrees at Department of social studies.

MSCA-IF proposal writing workshop attended

Today I am attending a UiS proposal writing workshop, held by Yellow Research, on MSCA Individual Fellowships (2018 call).

Wednesday, 18 April 2018

Two explanations of grading

Today I have provided two explanations of grading in "Philosophy of science and health care ethics".

PhD supervision seminar attended

Today I am attending a PhD candidates´ and supervisors´s seminar "Towards a successful relationship - roles, expectations and good conduct", held by University of Stavanger at Scandic Hotel Forum.

Tuesday, 17 April 2018

Book project description for Vekstkrisen submitted to text book prize competition

Last night I finished composing, and submitted, a contribution to Universitetsforlaget´s text book prize competition. The material submitted included CV, a sample chapter, and a 6 page project description for a book tentatively titled Vekstkrisen - Hva norsk økofilosofi sier om vekstøkonomien.

Most-publishing researcher at department; #3 at faculty

According to Cristin reporting for 2017, I was the most-publishing researcher at Department of social studies, with 4,8 publication points (6 publications), and 3rd most-publishing at Faculty of social science (which now consists of only 3 departments).

Top 5 for Faculty of social sciences:
#1 Kjell Hausken (SV-IMS/TN-IØRP) 10,6 points (9 publications)
#2 Lennart Rosenlund (SV-IMS) 5,0 points (3 publications)
#3 Morten Tønnessen (SV-IS) 4,8 points (6 publications)
#4 Svein Tuastad (SV-IS) 4,3 points (8 publications)
#5 Bjørn Ivar Kruke (SV-IMS) 3,6 points (7 publications)

Another NORPART meeting

Today I attended a meeting with two department colleagues and our visitor from Havana Angela Pena, in relation to our NORPART application. I am imvolved as a member of the project team and in developing, tentatively, a prospective course in "Inyercultural practice".

Monday, 16 April 2018


Third supervision with one of my four Bachelor thesis students done today - this completes third round of BA supervision (one left).

Dates of 14th world congress of semiotics announced

The 14th world congress of semiotics, organized by the International Association for Semiotic Studies (IASS), will be held in Buenes Aires, Argentina, on September 9-13th 2019. "Trajectories" are mentioned as a thematic keyword for the congress - see congress homepage.

Friday, 13 April 2018

Ontogeny of early human Umwelt article cited in Rognini 2018

My article
Tønnessen, Morten 2014. The ontogeny of the embryonic, foetal and infant human umwelt. Sign Systems Studies 43 (2/3): 281-307.
is cited in:
Rognini, Paolo 2018. Vestigial Drifting Drives in Homo sapiens. Biological Theory. Published online April 6th 2018. DOI:
Excerpt (p. 5, in the section "The Ecological Crisis: Two Examples of Dysfunctional Behavior"):
"Homo sapiens [... has developed] a strong, innate sense of acquisitiveness; a ravenous voraciousness. This could occur because: [...] (b) being born immature ([...] Tønnessen 2014) it bears a negative potential (an intrauterine parasitic stage), compensated for by [...] a hunger for "objects" from both the real and the ideal world [...]"

ResearchGate stats

According to the metrics of ResearchGate (see my profile) I currently have 101 citations and 2,761 reads of my papers registered there. My ResearchGate score is currently 16.56.

Thursday, 12 April 2018

Preface and introduction for Ex.Phil. anthology written

Last night (sic) I finished a brief introduction and the preface for the Ex.Phil. anthology that Universitetsforlaget will publish this autumn (Ex.Phil. for sosialfag).

Lecture by Øystein Olsen on monetary policy attended

I have just attended a guest lecture by Norway´s central bank governor Øystein Olsen on Norway´s monetary policy, arranged by the UiS Business School.


Another supervision today, the last this week.


Today we were served cake at Department of social studies, sponsored by the Faculty of social sciences, the leadership of which is happy about our relative progress in producing publication points.

Wednesday, 11 April 2018

NORPART meeting

Today I attended a meeting with two colleagues in relation to our NORPART application which is due by end of May.

Tuesday, 10 April 2018

Forskningsindeksen metrics and rankings as of 2016

According to Forskningsindeksen, as of 2016 I had 18.51 publication points the last 10 years (NB: I have only reported to Cristin, the Norwegian system, since 2012). This made me #2758 in Norway and #159 at University of Stavanger (UiS). In 2016 I was #77 at UiS and #1362 in the country, according to the same metrics, with 4.57 publication points.

Data for 2017 are not yet available in Forskningsindeksen.

PhD project plan response

Today I have responded thoroughly and for the last time to a PhD project plan, as supervisor. To be submitted now today.

Draft of CFP for JCSW

I have just drafted a Call For Papers for a special issue of Journal of Comparative Social Work, tentatively titled "Social change in South America and the Nordics". Awaiting feedback from fellow guest-editors and chief editor.

Monday, 9 April 2018

Google Scholar: 284 citations

According to Google Scholar (see my profile) my work has now been cited 284 times, including 10 times so far in 2018 publications. The total is up 5 since March 8th. 2017 now stands with 63 citations, as does 2016. 

My h-index remains 8 and my h10-index 7. 


Today and tomorrow I engage in supervision of my PhD student and one of my Bachelor thesis students (written feedback). A PhD project plan is due tomorrow.

Field visit info and planning

Today I met with the MFAMILY class in the "Welfare state and welfare policy" course to inform the students about arrangements for a forthcoming field visit to Stavanger City Hall in May.

Friday, 6 April 2018

Publication point statistics for 2017

Publication point statistics by faculty and department were just released internally. These show a new record for University of Stavanger, with 1.021 publication points, and for Department of social studies, with 27,4 points.

As far as I understand my 2017 publications were credited with 4,8 publication points, given the new system (which rewards international co-authorship). This means I was responsible for 18% of the publication points of my department, and 5% of the publication points credited to Faculty of social sciences.

4 supervision sessions

This week I have supervised four students - one PhD, one Master, and two Bachelor thesis students.

Thursday, 5 April 2018

Third lecture, song at gallery

Yesterday I gave the third and final lecture at Sølvberget galleri in connection with Eli Glader´s video art exhibition "Vitner". The lecture was titled "Vi er alle migranter - Flukt som menneskets situasjon", and attended by 18 people. Ahead of the lecture, "Herfra til ingensteder" by my musical alias The Schopenhauer Experience was played.

To guest-edit special issue of JCSW

I will be one of four guest editors for a forthcoming special issue of Journal of comparative social work (a peer-reviewed open access  journal), due to be published next Spring.

Wednesday, 4 April 2018

Chapter selection for new Ex.Phil. anthology

Yesterday i finished selecting chapters for a new edition of Ex.Phil. for sosialfag, edited by me this time (last version was edited by Jon Vegar Hugaas), to be published by Universitetsforlaget this autumn.

The anthology will feature a chapter by me ("Menneskeveldet") as well as an introductory chapter written by me, in addition to 15 other chapters.

Monday, 2 April 2018 stats

My profile has 12,882 views to date - 519 followers, and "author rank" 3.5. Currently lists 80 talks, 53 papers.

Wednesday, 28 March 2018

Two trips abroad arranged

I have arranged two trips; a writing trip for Oxford in the transition from April to May, and my trip to Canada for the OECD Social Policy Ministerial in Mid-May.

As for the writing trip, I suggested to meet up with someone from the Oxford Center for Animal Ethics, but apparently they don´t do that sort of thing (meetings).

Tuesday, 27 March 2018

Two explanations of grading given

I have just written two explanations of grading for the continuation exam in Ex.Phil.

No PhD project on welfare and prosperity

I have now been notified by my Head of department that he has concluded there will not be any PhD project on welfare and prosperity, which I proposed. My work plan for the next academic year has been adjusted accordingly.

See also:
Outline of possible PhD project on welfare revised; long-term research plan sketched
Performance appraisal; PhD project on welfare highly uncertain


This week I have completed the second supervision session with the fourth and last of my child welfare bachelor thesis students.

Monday, 26 March 2018

Terraforming Mars? Discussion aired on P2´s Verdibørsen

On March 22nd NRK P2´s Verdibørsen, with program host Jostein Gjertsen, included a 25 minute feature with me and Ingvil Førland Hellstrand entitled "Muligheten av Mars", on terraforming Mars. Podcast is available here

The interview aired again on Sunday March 25th, as the weekly sum-up of Verdibørsen.

COST progress report mentioning ethics of laying hen genetics article

GroupHouseNet has compiled and submitted a progress report at 24 months. The report makes reference to the ethics of laying hen genetics article that is in process written by Mia Fernyhough, me and three more.

Friday, 23 March 2018

Work lunch - evaluating and planning teaching

Today I have attended a work lunch with two colleagues concerning evaluation and planning of teaching at Master level on welfare policies etc.

To attend 2018 OECD Social Policy Ministerial

I have been registered for attending 2018 OECD Social Policy Ministerial, which has the theme "Social policy for shared prosperity: Embracing the future". The event, which will be held in Montréal, Canada, May 14-15th, will include a Policy Forum as well as ministerial meeting involving 35 ministers of social policy.

Thursday, 22 March 2018

17 MA exam papers graded

I have just reported having graded 17 home exam papers in "Philosophy of science and health care ethics".

Wednesday, 21 March 2018

Complaint examiner in GEN550

I have agreed to act as internal complaint examiner for the exam in the MEES master course "A new posthuman era? New theoretical reflections on the human and its relations" (GEN550), coordinated by Ingvil Førland Hellstrand.

Interviewed on colonizing Mars for NRK P2 Verdibørsen

I have just been at NRK Rogaland recording an interview organised by Jostein Gjertsen and also featuring Ingvil Førland Hellstrand, on the theme of colonizing Mars. Will air on NRK P2´s Verdibørsen tomorrow.

Monday, 19 March 2018

Performance appraisal; PhD project on welfare highly uncertain

I have just attended the annual performance appraisal with my Head of department. Topics included next academic year´s work plan, research activities and plans, etc.

An important topic we discussed is my proposal for a PhD project on welfare and prosperity - now focused on socioeconomically vulnerable groups. After receiving negative feedback from a key colleague for a second time, the feasibility of the project is highly uncertain, if not definitively disproved.

Friday, 16 March 2018

Wolf chapter revised and expanded

I have revised and expanded my chapter "Rovdyrstriden: Det kulturelle bakteppet", an invited contribution to a book on large predators in Southern Norway. Now approaching a full draft (currently close to 5.000 words).

Second print run for human-animal studies anthology

Our book Hvem er villest i landet her? Råskap mot dyr og natur i Antropocen, menneskets tidsalder has just been printed with a second print run (first print run was in 2013). See publisher´s book presentation here. I think this is the first time a book I have co-edited has had a second print run.

Outline of possible PhD project on welfare revised; long-term research plan sketched

Yesterday I finished revising a possible call for applications announcement text for a PhD project on welfare and prosperity - now with focus on people in vulnerable socioeconomic situations. I also drafted a long-term research plan, indicating possible topics for my own writing as well as possible partners and contacts. I am now awaiting feedback from a colleague and my head of department.

Welfare services research meeting

On Tuesday March 13th I attended the meeting of the program area for welfare services research, where we discussed this year´s research applications, and how we can help each other with regard to academic writing.

Thursday, 15 March 2018

Greenhouse lunch

For the first time in quite a while I attended the (mostly weekly) Greenhouse work lunch at UiS today. Nice catching up.

Work plan drafted, revised; research reported and planned

I have just revised my current work plan for the academic year 2017-18, drafted a work plan for 2018-19, and compiled a report for research activities for 2017-18 and plan for 2018-19, in preparation of performance appraisal with my Head of department next week.

Tuesday, 13 March 2018

NORPART application meeting

I have just met with a colleague to discuss our NORPART application, which I am involved in preparing.

Talk and discussion on Ex.Phil. at UiS leadership strategy seminar

Yesterday I gave a brief invited talk on perspectives on Examen Philosophicum at a strategy seminar for the leadership of University of Stavanger (rector, all deans, and a few more people in key positions), at Clarion hotel in town. My fellow philosopher Tarjer Mandt Larsen also attended and took part in the ensuing discussion.

Monday, 12 March 2018

3 hours of MA teaching on welfare state topics

Today I have taught for three hours in the Norwegian Master course "Velferdsstaten - politikk og teori". The topic was liberalism´s idea of a neutral state and its relation to people´s freedom to choose their life projects, with Norwegian family policies as a case study.

Sunday, 11 March 2018

9 exam papers graded

I have just graded 9 exam papers for the continuation exam in Examen Philosophicum (home exam) at Department of social studies.

Friday, 9 March 2018

Reimbursement paperwork

Today I have spent quite some time doing paperwork in order to get reimbursed and compensated for my trips to Mexico City and Havana this January.

Book review published in Prosa

My book review of
Merethe Roos og Johan Tønnesson (red.)
Sann opplysning? Naturvitenskap i nordiske offentligheter gjennom fire århundrer
Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2017
has been published in Prosa no. 1/2018, titled "Natur og kultur". Online version here.

Thursday, 8 March 2018

Google Scholar: 279 citations

According to Google Scholar (see my profile) my work has now been cited 279 times, including 8 times so far in 2018 publications. This is up 7 since February 4th. 2017 now stands with 62 citations, vs. 61 in 2016. The screenshot below shows my seven most cited texts.

Two of my articles cited in de Jesus 2018

My articles
Tønnessen, M. (2011). Semiotics of being and Uexküllian phenomenology. In: Phenomenology/Ontopoiesis retrieving geo-cosmic horizons of antiquity (pp. 327340). Springer Netherlands.
Tønnessen, M. (2016). Agency in biosemiotics and enactivism. In: Meaning, mind and communication: Explorations in cognitive semiotics. Peter Lang Publishing Group. pp. 69-82
are cited in
de Jesus, Paulo 2018. Thinking through enactive agency: sense-making, bio-semiosis and the ontologies of organismic worlds. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. Published online March 2nd 2018. DOI:
Excerpts, p. 17:
BE [Biosemiotic Enactivism] endorses enactivisms strong life-mind continuity but grounds it on Uexkülls Umwelt theory and the bio-semiosis (sense-making/meaning-making) of living organisms (see also Meacham 2016).
   In so doing BE explicitly distances itself from enactivisms reliance on Hans Jonas and suggests in its place, following Morten Tønnessen (2011), an "Uexküllian phenomenology". Which, "is loyal not to Uexküll thought in detail but to the essential finding that nature is constituted by the intricate relations of all living creatures, which are all subjects of the phenomenal world at large" (Tønnessen 2011, p. 331). These relations are in turn conceived as bio-semiotic processes involving, at its most foundational-level, iconic (similarity-based) or/and indexical (causal) and at its most
developed-level symbolic (conventional) signs.
Footnote 11:
Biosemiotics, somewhat like enactivism, is still a field in its developing stages constituted by a loose group of connected yet different approaches. For an overview of the distinct schools and their relation see Barbieri (2009). For an exploration and comparison between enactive and biosemiotic approaches to agency see Tønnessen (2016).

Wednesday, 7 March 2018

Two supervision sessions

Today I have supervised two students, one Bachelor thesis student and one Master thesis student.

Tuesday, 6 March 2018

Staff meeting attended

Today I have attended the Department of social studies´ staff meeting. Issues for discussion included the department´s action plan for the next few years.

Lecture with ethics theme given at Sølvberget galleri

On Wednesday February 28th I gave the first of three lectures at Sølvberget galleri in relation to Eli Glader´s video art exhibition Vitner. This first talk was entitled "Nær eller upartisk? Etikk i mangfoldets tid". About 10 people were present.

Monday, 5 March 2018

Two papers accepted for presentation in Berkeley (18th gathering in biosemiotics)

I have been informed by the organizers of the 18th gathering in biosemiotics, to be held at UC Berkeley June 17-20th, that my two paper submissions have been accepted for oral presentation:
  • The search image as link between sensation, perception and action
  • Biosemiotic readings in a Norwegian philosophy of science MA course (paper in session "Biosemiotics and the curriculum", organized by Paul Cobley)

Friday, 2 March 2018

Three supervision sessions

This week I have supervised three students - a PhD student and two bachelor thesis students.

Thursday, 1 March 2018

Course dates autumn 2018

I have just submitted my preferences for course dates and times for autumn 2018.

"Introducing zoosemiotics" chapter to be translated to Hungarian

Our chapter to below is to be translated to Hungarian published in an edited collection.
Maran, Timo, Morten Tønnessen, Riin Magnus, Nelly Mäekivi, Silver Rattasepp and Kadri Tüür 2016. Introducing Zoosemiotics: Philosophy and Historical Backgrounds. In Maran, Tønnessen and Rattasepp (eds), Animal Umwelten in a changing world – Zoosemiotic perspectives (Tartu: Tartu University Press 2016), 10–28.

To be plenary speaker at hybrid natures conference in Tartu

I have agreed to be a plenary speaker at the conference “Semiotics of hybrid natures: anthropogenic ecosystems, multimodalities, transformed Umwelten”, to be held in Tartu, Estonia, November 8-10th 2018.

Mentioned on NRK Rogaland radio

On February 8th I was mentioned on NRK Rogaland radio in a story about Eli Glader´s video art exhibition Vitner on Sølvberget Galleri, in connection with the three lectures I am giving in relation to the exhibition.

Research program area application submitted

Our revised application for establishment of a research program area on philosophy and subjectivity was submitted yesterday.

Wednesday, 28 February 2018

Meeting on PhD proposal

On Friday 23rd of February I attended a meeting with three colleagues, including my head of department, concerning my proposal for a PhD scholarship on connections between welfare and prosperity.

5 hours of teaching

On Friday 23rd of February I taught for 5 hours, finishing teaching in "Philosophy of science and health care ethics". As the second gathering concluded, the home exam began.

Tuesday, 27 February 2018

Monday, 26 February 2018

At home

Today I stayed at home with my sick daughter. Though I think she was in pretty much as good shape as myself.

ResearchGate achievement

"With 26 new reads," says ResearchGate, "your contributions were the most read contributions from your department". I receive similar messages quite often (though many of my colleagues are not on ResearchGate).

Thursday, 22 February 2018

6 hours of teaching

Today I have taught for another 6 hours, including 4 hours of teacher-moderated and -commented student presentations and two hours of teacher presentations.

Wednesday, 21 February 2018

Three assignment papers approved in MPH130

Today I have evaluated and approved three assignment texts submitted as replacement for participating in a student presentation in the PHCC Master course Philosophy of science and health care ethics.

6 hours of PHCC teaching

Today I have taught for 6 hours in "Philosophy of science and health care ethics", with ethical themes, including 4 hours of teacher-moderated student presentations. Good discussions.

Tuesday, 20 February 2018

To present on nature view etc. at hunting themed gathering in June

As a member of the Norwegian network "Jakt i endring" [Hunting undergoing change] I have agreed to present a paper on views on nature and animal life at a network gathering June 5th-6th.

Second print run

We have been notified that our edited human-animal relations anthology Hvem er villest i landet her?, published by Spartacus forlag, will have a second print run. I think this is the first time I am involved in a book with a second print run.

Monday, 19 February 2018

Teaching on master level on autonomy and paternalism

Today I have lectured for close to three hours in a joint session for the MFAMILY class and Norwegian master students, with the topic autonomy and paternalism in political (and moral) theory.

Sunday, 18 February 2018

Publication date for framing the environmental humanities book

I have been informed that the book Framing the Environmental Humanities, where I contribute with the chapter "Animals in Norwegian Political Party Programs: A Critical Reading" (see reference), will be released (not in April, but) February 22nd. Here´s the publisher´s, Brill´s, online info. My chapter is no. 7, and part of Part 2, "History, Politics, and National Frames".

Friday, 16 February 2018

Research visit by Mia Fernyhough completed

Mia Fernyhough´s research visit at University of Stavanger, hosted by me as part of her/our Short-Term Scientific Mission, has just finished, after two weeks of collaborating of drafting an article on the ethics of laying hen genetics.

Exam questions composed for PHCC master

I have just composed exam questions for Philosophy of science and health care ethics (PHCC master). The home exam starts in a week.

Thursday, 15 February 2018

Meeting on PHCC master

Today I have had a meeting with the new program coordinator for the Pre-Hospital Critical Care master at University of Stavanger´s Faculty of health sciences, discussing the course I am coordinating and teaching, on health care ethics and philosophy of science.

Tuesday, 13 February 2018

3 abstracts reviewed for IACS3

I have just completed my peer-review of thee abstracts submitted to IACS3, the third conference of the International Association for Cognitive Semiotics, as one of several members of its Program Committee.

Link to Verdibørsen interview on tagging of wild animals

Here is the Verdibørsen program that aired February 7th featuring an interview with me on tagging of wild animals.

Monday, 12 February 2018

Meeting of Council for animal ethics attended

Today I have attended the meeting of Norway´s Council for animal ethics at the Veterinary institute, Oslo. Interesting, and things to learn, as last time... This time concerning fish behavior (Atlantic salmon), for one thing.

Sunday, 11 February 2018

Exam questions composed

I have just composed exam questions for the continuation home exam in MEE140.

Meeting in preparation of program area on subjectivity

Last week I attended a meeting with two colleagues in preparation of our program area application focusing on subjectivity. We particularly focused on external funding plans, but also other aspects.

To edit new/revised Ex.Phil. anthology

I have agreed with Universitetsforlaget that I will work to prepare a new, part revised and part expanded, version of their Ex.Phil. anthology for social studies. Chapter selection and writing of a new introduction must be in place within a few months.

Complaint grading done

A few days ago I graded 8 home exam papers in Examen Philosophicum in a round of complaint grading, along with an external grader.

Eli Glader´s video art exhibition "Vitner" opened

This Saturday, namely yesterday, Eli Glader´s video art exhibition "Vitner" [Witnesses] opened on Sølvberget Galleri, Stavanger, featuring a brochure with a text written by me ("Vitner"), and three lectures by me being held in February, March and April. I was present during the opening yesterday along with my family.

Ulvetider main book in book club Villmarksliv; thorough outline online

Our book Ulvetider is main book in the book club Villmarksliv now in early 2018, and I assume this is the pretext for a new and more throrough description of our book on the webpage of the Norwegian book clubs.

Draft of call for applications for PhD on welfare and prosperity

I have just finished drafting a call for applications for a doctorate scholarship on connections between welfare and prosperity, now awaiting feedback from key colleagues.

Thursday, 8 February 2018

Demography talk given at Domkirkens teologikafé, Kristiansand

Yesterday I gave a talk at Domkirkens teologikafé in Kristiansand doom church, entitled "Vær fryktbare og bli mange, fyll jorden og legg den under dere!" Some 20 people attended the event.

Wednesday, 7 February 2018

Interview on radiocollaring of wild animals aired on NRK P2

Today an interview with me on radiocollaring of wild animals was recorded, and a few later it aired in NRK P2´s program Verdibørsen. The journalist was Mathias Nylenna. I was presented as Associate professor of philosophy at UiS and member of Norway´s Council for animal ethics.

STSM in progress; article disposition drafted

Since Monday this week I have been working with Mia Fernyhough as part of a Short-Term Scientific Mission that involves her research visit hosted by me at University of Stavanger. Along with three further collaborators we are working on a scientific article on the ethics of laying hen genetics. Today we completed a disposition.

Tuesday, 6 February 2018

Exam questions composed

I have just, a bit on overtime, composed exam questions for the continuation exams - home exam plus Multiple Choice - in Examen Philosophicum at Department of social studies.

Sunday, 4 February 2018

Google Scholar: 272 citations

Some data has been added to my Google Scholar profile. On this last count, my work has been cited 272 times (+11 since December 19th). 2016 and 2017 are now tied with 61 citations in each year (in comparison I was cited 48 times in 2015 publications and 24 times in 2014 publications). 

My h-index remains 8 and my h10-index 7.

Search image article published in paginated version; final reference

My article on Jakob von Uexküll´s "search image" notion has been paginated and published in its final version (it was published online last autumn). The article, which is part of a special issue on code biology, is for a limited time freely available online. 

Final reference:

Tønnessen, Morten 2017 (online) / 2018 (print). The search image as a link between sensation, perception and action. BioSystems 164 (special issue on Code Biology edited by Marcello Barbieri and Jan-Hendrik Hofmeyr): 138–146. Published online November 4th 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystems.2017.10.016.